A significant share of classroom interaction occurs between teachers and language learners. Therefore, the individual characteristics of teachers could play facilitative or impeding roles thus encouraging or discouraging learners from getting engaged in interaction and meaning negotiation attempts when interacting with their teachers. Surprisingly however, this area has attracted scant attention. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring students’ perceptions of their teachers’ socio-communicative style and nonverbal immediacy in relation to their engagement in classroom teacher-learner interaction and frequency of meaning negotiation attempts in their interactions. To this aim, 72 students were randomly assigned to six classes of 12 taught by six teachers. Richmond, McCroskey and Johnson’s (2003) nonverbal immediacy scale and McCroskey and Richmond’s (1996) socio-communicative style scale were administered to students to tap into their perceptions of these two qualities of their teachers. Then the total amount of time the students were engaged in active interaction with the teachers and the number of meaning negotiation attempts employed by them were computed. The results of Correlations and Regression Analyses revealed significant relationships between teacher nonverbal immediacy, the two dimensions of socio-communicative style (Assertiveness and Responsiveness) and the students’ willingness to engage in interaction and meaning negotiation with their teachers.
Andersen, J. F. (1979). Teacher immediacy as a predictor of teaching effectiveness. Communication Yearbook, 3, 543-559.
Brewster, D. (2004). Stereotypical perceptions of the communication behaviors of gay males. Unpublished MA Thesis, West Virginia University, West Virginia.
Burgoon, J. K., Birk, T., & Pfau, M. (1990). Nonverbal Behaviors, Persuasion, and Credibility. Human Communication Research, 17, 140-169.
Chapelle, C. A. (1998). Multimedia CALL: Lessons to be learned from research on instructed SLA. Language Learning & Technology, 2 (1), 22-34.
Chesebro, J. C., & McCroskey, J. C. (2001). The relationship of teacher clarity and immediacy with student state receiver apprehension, affect, and cognitive learning. Communication Education, 50, 59-68.
Christophel, D. M. (1990). The relationships among teacher immediacy behaviors, student motivation, and learning. Communication-Education, 39, 323-340.
Elliot, T. R., & Gramling, S. E. (1990). Personal assertiveness and the effects of social support among college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 37, 427-436.
Gass, S. M. (1997). Input, interaction, and the second language learner. Mahwah, New Jersey, London: Lawrence Erlbaum, 131-132.
Gass, S. M., & Selinker, L. (2008). Second language acquisition: An introductory course (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge/Taylor Francis.
Hsu, L. (2010). The impact of perceived teachers’ nonverbal immediacy on students’ motivation for learning English. Asian EFL Journal, 12 (4), Retrieved from: http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/December_2010_LH.php
Krashen, S. D. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford: Pergamon.
Krashen, S., & Terrel, T. (1983). The Natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Long, M. H. (1981). Input, interaction, and second language acquisition. In H. Winitz (Ed.), Native language and foreign language acquisition: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (pp. 259–278). NewYork: NewYork Academy of Sciences.
Long, M. H. (1983). Native speaker/non-native-speaker conversation and the negotiation of comprehensible input. Applied Linguistics, 4, 126-141.
Martin, M. M., & Anderson, C. M. (1996). Argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 11, 547-554.
Martin, M. M., Chesebro, J. C., & Mottet, T. P. (1997). Students’ perceptions of instructors’ socio-communicative style and the influence on instructor credibility and situational motivation. Communication Research Reports, 14, 431-440.
McCluskey, R. Q. (2009). Teacher immediacy and learning mathematics: Effectson students with divergent mathematical aptitudes (Unpublished masters’ thesis). Texas Tech University, USA.
McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (1996). Fundamentals of human communication: An interpersonal perspective. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
McCroskey, J. C., Richmond, V. P., & Bennett, V. (2006). The relationship of student end-of class motivation with teacher communication behaviors and instructional outcomes. Communication Education, 55(4), 403-414.
Mehrabian, A. (1971). Silent messages. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Mehrabian, A. (1981). Silent messages: Implicit communication of emotions and attitudes (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Myers, S. A., Martin, M. M., & Mottet, T. P. (2002). Students’ motives for communicating with their instructors: Considering instructor socio-communicative style, student socio-communicative orientation, and student gender. Communication Education, 51, 121-133.
Plax, T.G., Kearney, P, McCroskey, J.C., & Richmond, V.P. (1986). Power in the
classroom VI: Verbal control strategies, nonverbal immediacy and affective learning. Communication Education, 35, 43-55.
Pogue, L. L., & AhYun, K. (2006). The effect of teacher nonverbal immediacy and credibility on student motivation and affective learning. Communication Education, 55, 331-342.
Richmond, V.P. (1990). Communication in the classroom: Power and motivation. Communication Education, 39, 181-195.
Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, J. C. (1990). Reliability and separation of factors on the assertiveness-responsiveness measure. Psychological Reports, 67, 449-450.
Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, J. C. (1992). Communication: Apprehension,
avoidance, and effectiveness. Scottsdale, AZ: Gorsuch Scarisbrick.
Richmond, V. P., McCroskey, J. C., & Johnson, A. D. (2003). Development of the Nonverbal Immediacy Scale (NIS): Measures of self- and other-perceived nonverbal immediacy. Communication Quarterly, 51, 502-515.
Rocca, K. (2004). College student attendance: Impact of instructor immediacy and verbal aggression. Communication Education, 52, 185-195.
Rubin, R. B., & Martin, M. M. (1994). Development of a measure of interpersonal communication competence. Communication Research Reports, 11, 33-44. doi: 10.1080/08824099409359938
Schmidt, R. W., & Frota, S. N. (1986). Developing basic conversational ability in a second language: A case study of an adult learner of Portuguese. In R.R. Day (Ed.), Talking to learn: Conversation in second language acquisition (pp. 237-326). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Shu-Fang, N., & Aust, R. (2008). Examining teacher verbal immediacy and sense of classroom community in online classes. International Journal on E-Learning, 7 (3), 477–498.
Sidelinger, R. J., & McCroskey, J. C. (1997). Communication correlates of teacher clarity in the classroom. Communication Research Reports, 14(1),1-10.
Slane, S., & Leak, G. (1979). Effects of self perceived nonverbal immediacy behaviors on interpersonal attraction. The Journal of Psychology, 98, 241-248.
Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. In S. M. Gass & C. G. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition (pp. 235-53). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Swain, M. (1995). Three functions of output in second language learning. In G. Cook, (Ed.), Principle and practice in applied linguistics: Studies in Honor of H. G. Widdowson (pp. 125–144). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tabasco, D. (2007). Investigation of the relationships among teachers immediacy and creativity, and students’ perceived cognitive learning (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Drexel University.
Thomas, C. E. (1994). An analysis of teacher socio-communicative style as a predictor of classroom communication behaviors, student liking, motivation, and learning (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV.
Thomas, C. E., Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, J. C. (1994). The association between immediacy and socio-communicative style. Communication Research Reports, 11, 107-115.
Tuan, L. T., & Nhu, N. T. K. (2010), Theoretical review on oral interaction in EFL classrooms. Studies in Language and Literature,1 (4), 29-48.
Varonis, E. M., & Gass, S. M. (1985). Non-native/non-native conversations: A model for negotiation of meaning. Applied Linguistics, 6(1), 71-90.
Wooten, A. G., & McCroskey, J. C. (1996). Student trust as a function of socio-communicative style of teacher and socio-communicative orientation of student. Communication Research Reports, 13, 94-100.
Xu, G. (2010). Understanding the role of interaction from linguistic, affective, and social perspectives, TESL Canada Journal, 27(2), 68-88.