1Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch
2Allameh Tabataba’i University, Iran
This study was an attempt to determine the effect of task-based approach vs. traditional approach on the narrative and expository writing of the Iranian EFL learners. There were two control groups as well as two experimental ones in the current study. In the two control groups namely G1 and G2 narrative and expository writing were taught respectively using the traditional approach.
Whereas, in the two experimental groups, namely G3 and G4 narrative and expository writing were taught respectively on the basis of task-based approach.
After the treatment, a narrative writing post-test was given to the two narrative groups (G1 and G3) and an expository writing post-test was given to the two expository groups (G2 and G4). Data analysis showed that experimental groups outperformed control groups. So it was concluded that task-based approach was more effective in teaching narrative and expository writing compared to the traditional approach. It was also found that although there was a difference between the narrative and expository experimental groups (G3 and G4) in favor of the narrative group, this difference was not statistically significant.
Ellis, R. (2000). “Task-based research and language pedagogy”, Language Teaching Research, 4 (3), pp. 193-220.
Ellis, R. (2003). Task-Based Learning and Teaching, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Harmer, J. (2001). The Practice of English Language Teaching (3rd Ed.),Edinburgh: Pearson Education.
Hatch, E., and Lazaraton, A. (1991).The Research Manual: Design and Statistics for Applied Linguistics, Newbury House Publication.
Hedge, T. (2000). Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom,Oxford:OxfordUniversity Press.
Jacobs, H. V., Fay Hartflel, V., Hughey, J. B., and Wormuth, D. R. (1981). ESL Composition Profile, Newbury House Publisher.
Jewell, J. (2004). Rhetorical modes. Retrieved January 1st, 2008, from http://www. College writing.info.
Kroll, B. (2001). “Considerations for teaching an ESL/EFL writing course”, in M. Celce-Murcia (ed.), Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language,Boston: Heinle and Heinle, pp. 219-232.
Leaver, L. D, Willis, J. R. (eds.) (2004). Task Based Instruction in Foreign Language Education: Practices and Programs,Washington,DC:GeorgetownUniversity Press.
Littlewood, W. (2004). “The task-based approach: some questions and suggestions”, ELT Journal, 58 (4), pp. 319-327.
Matsuda, P. K. (1997). “Contrastive rhetoric in context: A dynamic model of L2 writing”, Journal of Second Language Writing, 6 (1), pp. 45-60.
Nunan, D. (1989). Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom,Cambridge:CambridgeUniversity Press.
Nunan, D. (1999). Second Language Teaching and Learning,Boston: Newbury House Publication.
Nunan, D. (2004). Task-Based Language Teaching: A Comprehensively Revised Edition of Designing Tasks for Communicative Classroom,Cambridge:CambridgeUniversity Press.
Reid, J. (2001). “Writing”, in R. Carter and D. Nunan (eds.), The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages,Cambridge:CambridgeUniversity Press, pp. 28-33.
Richards, J. C., and Rodgers, T. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching (2nd Ed.),Cambridge:CambridgeUniversity Press.
Richards, J. C., and Schmidt, R. (2002). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (3rd Ed.), Pearson Education Limited.
Seow, A. (2002). “The writing process and process of writing”, in J. C. Richards and W. A. Renandya (eds.), Methodology in Language Teaching: An Anthology of Current Practice,Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 315-320.
Silva, T. (1993). “Toward an understanding of the distinct nature of L2 writing: The ESL research and its implications”, TESOL Quarterly, 27 (4), pp. 657-675.
Silva, T., and Matsuda, P. K. (2002). “Writing”, in N. Schmitt (ed.), An Introduction to Applied Linguistics,London:ARNOLD, pp. 251-266.
Stifler, B. (2002). Rhetorical modes. Retrieved January 1st, 2008, from http://users.cdc.net/~stifler/en110/modes.html.
Weigle, S. C. (2002). Assessing Writing,Cambridge:CambridgeUniversity Press.
Willis, J. (1996). A Framework for Task-Based Learning,Harlow: Longman.
Willis, D., and Willis, J. (2001). “Task-based language learning”, in R. Carter and D. Nunan (eds.), The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 173-179.