The purpose of the present study was to compare writing high achievers and low achievers TEFL (teaching English as foreign language) learners’ writing self-beliefs. Subjects, based on their officially recorded scores on the writing course, were assigned in two 22-member groups of high and low achievers. The adapted English version of Mills’ and Péron’s (2008) questionnaire and the Foreign Language Writing Self-Beliefs Instrument which assesses writing self-efficacy in the areas of organization, expression, content and grammar as well as writing self-concept, writing anxiety, perceived value of writing, and self-efficacy for self-regulation in writing were administered to evaluate each group’s writing self beliefs. The results of the two-way ANOVAs suggested that high achievers’ writing self beliefs were significantly higher than low achievers. Implications for researchers and educators are discussed.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bandura, A. (1995). Manual for the Construction of Self-efficacy Scales, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-2130.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control, New York: W. H. Freeman.
Betz, N. E. (1978). “Prevalence, distribution, and correlates of math anxiety in college students”, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 25, pp. 441-448.
Benton, P. (1999). “Unweaving the rainbow: poetry teaching in the secondary school”, Oxford Review of Education, 25 (4), pp. 521-531.
Bruning, R., and Horn, C. (2000). “Developing motivation to write” [Electronic version], Educational Psychologist, 35, pp. 25-38.
Campbell, C. (1998). Teaching Second-Language Writing: Interacting with Text, Boston: Heinle and Heinle.
Collins, S. J., and Bissell, K. L. (2002). “Self-efficacy in a media writing course” [Electronic version], Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, 56, pp. 19-36.
Eccles, J. P. (1984). “Expectancies, values, and academic behaviors”, in J.T. Spence (ed.), Achievement and Achievement Motives, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, pp. 75-146.
Elbow, P. (1993). “Ranking, evaluating, and liking: Sorting out three forms of judgment”, College English, 55,pp.186-206.
Frank, C. R. (2003). “Mapping our stories: Teachers’ reflections on themselves as writers”, Language Arts, 80 (3), pp.185-195.
Handley, Herbert M., and Thomson, James R. (1990). Determination of reliability and validity for Myself as a Teacher Scale. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, New Orlea, LA.
Hattie, J. (1992). Self-concept, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hull, G., and Rose, M. (1989). “Rethinking remediation: Toward a social-cognitive understanding of problematic reading and writing”, Written Communication, 6,pp. 139-154.
Hummann, L. (2005). “Self regulation in academic writing tasks”, International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 17 (1), pp. 15-26.
Ivanic, R., and Camps, D. (2001). “I am how I sound: Voice as self-representation in L2 writing”, Journal of Second Language Writing, 10, pp. 3-33.
Klassen, R. M. (2002). “Writing in early adolescence: A review of the role of self-efficacy beliefs”, Educational Psychology Review, 14, pp. 173-203.
McCall, R. B., Evahn, C., and Kratzer, L. (1992). High School Underachievers: What Do They Achieve as Adults, Newbury Park: Sage.
McConochie, J. (2000). “Feeling and acting like a writer”, TESOL Journal, 9, pp. 4-16.
McLeod, S. H. (1987). “Some thoughts about feelings: The affective domain and the writing process” [Electronic version], College Composition and Communication, 38, pp.426-435.
McLeod, S. H. (1995). “Pygmalion or golem? Teacher affect and efficacy” [Electronic version], College Composition and Communication, 46 (3), pp. 369-386.
Marsh, H. W. (1990). “The structure of academic self-concept: The Marsh- Shavelson Model”, Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, pp. 623-636.
Mills, N. A., Pajares, F., and Herron, C. A. (2006). “A reevaluation of the role of anxiety: Self-efficacy, anxiety, and their relation to reading and listening proficiency”, Foreign Language Annals, 39, pp. 273-292.
Mills, N. A., and Péron, M. (in press). “Global simulation and writing self-beliefs of intermediate French students”, International Journal of Applied Linguistic. Retrieved December 18, 2009 from http://works.bepress.com/nicole_mills/6
Miller, S. D., Adkins, T., and Hooper, M. L. (1993). “Why teachers select specific literacy assignments and students’ reactions to them”, Journal of ReadingBehavior, 25,pp. 69-95.
Moore, R. A. (2000). “Pre-service teachers explore their conceptions of the writing process with young pen pals”, Reading Research and Instruction, 40 (1), pp.17-33.
Mündel-Atherstone, B. (1981). “A personality profile of students who are successful in student teaching and teaching”, Paper presented at annual meeting of the Canadian Society for the Study of Education, Montreal, Quebec.
Pajares, F. (2003). “Self-efficacy beliefs, motivation, and achievement in writing: A review of the literature”, Reading and Writing Quarterly, 19, pp. 139-158.
Pajares, F., Hartley, J. and Valiante, G. (2001). “Response format in writing self‐efficacy assessment: Greater discrimination increases prediction”, Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 33(4), pp. 214-221.
Pajares, F., and Valiante, G. (1997). “The predictive and mediational role of the writing self efficacy beliefs of upper elementary students”, Journal of Educational Research, 90,pp. 353-360.
Pajares, F. and Valiante, G. (1999). “Grade Level and Gender Differences in the Writing Self-Beliefs of Middle School Students”, Contemporary Educational Psychology, 24,pp. 390-405.
Pajares, M. F., and Johnson, M. J. (1993, April). Confidence and competence in writing: The role of self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and apprehension. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Atlanta, GA, April 12-16, 1993). (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 358 474).
Perry, N. E. (1998). “Young children’s self-regulated learning and contexts that support it”, Journal ofEducational Psychology, 90, pp.715-729.
Pintrich, P. R. (2000). “The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning”, in M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, and M. Zeidner (eds.), Handbook of Self-regulation, New York: Academic Press, pp. 452-502.
Reis, S. M., and McCoach, D. B. (2000). “The underachievement of gifted students: What do we know and where do we go?”, Gifted Child Quarterly, 44, pp. 152-170.
Richards, J. C., and Renandya, W. A. (eds.) (2002). Methodology in Language Teaching: An Anthology of Current Practice, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Schunk, D. H. (1998, November). Motivation and self-regulation among gifted learners. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association of Gifted Children, Louisville, KY.
Schunk, D. H., and Ertmer, P. A. (2000). “Self-regulation and academic learning: Self-efficacy enhancing interventions”, in M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, and M. Zeidner (eds.), Handbook of Self-regulation, New York: Academic Press, pp. 631-650.
Schunk, D. H., and Zimmerman, B. (eds.). (1994). Self-regulation of Learning and Performance: Issues and Educational Applications, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Shell, D. F. (1989). “Self-efficacy and outcome expectancy mechanisms in reading and writing achievement”, Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, pp. 91-100.
Shell, D. F., Colvin, C., and Bruning, R. H. (1995). “Self-efficacy, attributions, and outcome expectancy mechanisms in reading and writing achievement: Grade-level and achievement-level differences”, Journal of Educational Psychology, 87,pp. 386–398.
Shell, D. F., Murphy, C. C., and Bruning, R. H. (1989). “Self-efficacy and outcome expectancy mechanisms in reading and writing achievement”, Journal of Educational Psychology, 81,pp.91-100.
Skaalvik, E. (1997). “Issues in research on self-concept”, in M. Maehr and P. R. Pintrich (eds.), Advances in Motivation and Achievement, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, Vol. 10, pp. 51-97.
Spaulding, C. (1995). “Teachers’ psychological presence on students’ writing-task engagement”, The Journal of Educational Research, 88, pp. 210-219.
Spiliotopoulos, V., and Carey, S. (2005). “Investigating the role of identity in writing using electronic bulletin boards”, The Canadian Modern Language Review, 62, pp. 87-109.
Supplee, P. L. (1990). Reaching the Gifted Underachiever, New York: Teachers College Press.
Tang, R., and Suganthi, R. (1999). “The ‘I’ in identity: Exploring writer identity in student academic writing through the first person pronoun”, English for Specific Purposes, 18, pp. 23-39.
Thomas, B. (2007). Writing Teacher Anxiety- A Pilot Study, Germany: Vdm Verlag.
Wachholz, P. B., and Etheridge, C. P. (1996). “Writing self-efficacy beliefs of high- and low apprehensive writers”, Journal of Developmental Education, 19 (3), pp. 16-24.
Walker, B. J. (2003). “The cultivation of student self-efficacy in reading and writing”, Reading and Writing Quarterly, 19, pp. 173-187.
Wachholz, P. B., and Etheridge, C. P. (1996). Speaking for themselves: Writing self-efficacy beliefs of high and low apprehensive writers. Collected EDRS papers, pp. 2-20.
Weiner, J. B. (1992). Psychological Disturbance in Adolescence (2nd ed.), New York: John Wiley and sons.
Whitmore, J. R. (1980). Giftedness, Conflict, and Underachievement, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Wigfield, A., and Eccles, J. (1992). “The development of achievement task values: A theoretical analysis”, Developmental Review, 12,pp. 265-310.
Wilson, S. M. and Floden, R. E. (2003). Creating effective teachers: Concise answers for hard questions. An addendum to the report. “Teacher Preparation Research: Current Knowledge, Gaps, and Recommendations.” Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Washington, DC.
Winne, P. H. (1995). “Inherent details in self-regulated learning” [Electronic version], Educational Psychologist, 309, pp. 173-188.
Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). “Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: and Overview”, Educational Psychologist, 25, pp. 3-17.
Zimmerman, B. J., Bandura, A., and Martinez-Pons, M. (1992). “Self-motivation for academic attainments: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and personal goal setting”, American EducationalResearch Journal, 29, pp. 663-676.
Zimmerman, B. J., and Martinez-Pons, M. (1988). “Construct validation of a strategy model of student self-regulated learning”, Journal of Educational Psychology, 80,pp. 284-290.